to urban migration has become a key issue in the study of economic development,
but whether it should be promoted or discouraged is a debatable topic. As
discussed in the preceding chapters, rural-urban migration has both positive
and negative effects on the migrants, the place of origin and the place of
destination. Migration is a selective process affecting individuals or families
with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. It
occurs as a response to economic development as well as social, cultural,
environmental and political factors. The socio-economic and demographic
implication of rural-urban migration does have significant impact on both rural
and urban areas (Lipton, 1980).
India, 68.9 per cent of the population lives in 6.40 lakh villages. The share
of agriculture to overall GDP in India has come down to 14 percent, while 66.2
percent of rural males and 81.6 percent of rural females are engaged in
agriculture as cultivators or labourers. Inadequate diversification has taken
place in rural occupations as many 66.2 percent of rural males and 81.6 percent
of rural females, reporting agriculture as their principal economic activity. There
is continuous migration from the rural to urban areas in search of better
employment opportunities and living standard (Razi
and poverty have become critical development issues in the contemporary world.
Surprisingly, the two phenomena have seldom been considered interrelated except
wherever anecdotal evidence is adduced on plausible effects of one on the
other. Migration and poverty researchers, planners policymakers and programme
implementers continue to work independent of one another, never comparing notes
on the reciprocal relationship between the two. Migration can both cause and be
caused by poverty. Similarly, poverty can be alleviated as well as exacerbated
by population movement. Easy generalizations are impossible to make but it is
likely that the relative impact of migration on poverty, and of poverty on
migration, varies by level of development of the area under consideration. In
some parts of the world and under certain conditions, poverty may be a root
cause of migration, whereas in other parts, under different conditions, the
poor will be among the last to move. Equally, in some areas, migration may be
an avenue out of poverty while in others it contributes to an extension of
poverty (Skeldon, 1997).
Internal Migrants in India can be classified into
the following types:
place of birth – People who are enumerated at a place other than their place of
place of last residence- People who are enumerated at a place other than their
place of immediate last residence.
MIGRATION : SOME EMERGING TRENDS:
The migration rate in the urban areas
(35%) was far higher than the migration rate in the rural areas (26%).
Magnitude of male migration rate was far
lower than female migration rate, in both rural and urban areas. In rural areas
nearly 48% of the females were migrants while the male migration rate was only
5%, and in the urban areas, the male migration rate was nearly 26% compared to
female migration rate of 46%.
Migration rate in rural areas was lowest
among the scheduled tribe (ST), nearly 24%, and it was highest among those
classified in the social group ‘others’, nearly 28%.
In urban areas, migration rate was
lowest among other backward class (OBC) nearly 33%, and it was highest among
those classified in the social group ‘others’, nearly 38%.
For rural male, migration rate was
lowest (nearly 4%) among the ‘not literates’, and it was nearly 14% among those
with educational level ‘graduate and above’. For urban males also, it was
lowest for among the ‘not literate’ (17%), and 38% for those with educational
level ‘graduate or above’ level.
Among the migrants in the rural areas,
nearly 91% had migrated from the rural areas and 8% had migrated from the urban
areas, whereas among the migrants in the urban areas, nearly 59% migrated from
the rural areas and 40% from urban areas.
Nearly 60% of urban male migrants and
59% of urban female migrants had migrated from rural areas.
The most prominent reason for female
migration in both the rural and urban areas was marriage : for 91% of rural
female migrants and 61% of the urban female migrants the reason was marriage.
The reason for migration for male
migrant, was dominated by employment related reasons, in both rural and urban
areas. Nearly 29% of rural male migrants and 56% of urban male migrants had
migrated due to employment related reasons.
A higher percentage of the persons were
found to be engaged in economic activities after migration : for males the
percentage of workers increased from 51% before migration to 63% after
migration in rural areas and from 46%-70% in urban areas, while for females it
increased from 20%-33% in rural areas and from 8%-14% in urban areas.
For rural males, self-employment had
emerged as main recourse to employment after migration. The share of
self-employment in total migrants increased from 16% before migration to 27%
after migration, while the shares of regular employees and casual labours
remained almost stable, in both before and after migration (GoI, 2010).
PUSH AND PULL
Pressure: The growing population
pressure on our natural resources has led to a stage where they are being used
and depleted at a rate more than their natural rate of formation. The
population pressure limits already limited opportunities and resources in the
rural areas. More population means more and more peoples have to share the
limited resources available with the rural families. This also forces them to
migrate to safe destinations (Kumar, 2014).
capita availability of land:
The increasing population has led to the fragmentation of land. The per capita
availability of land has decreased considerably. More than eighty per cent of
the farmers are now marginal and small. Such small holdings have now become
uneconomical. The growing number of farmer suicides and the dropping out of
farmers from their profession is an indicator of this. Farming community is now
looking out for other alternatives. This also has catalytic effect in migration
to urban centers for better earning opportunities (Kumar, 2014).
Climate refugee: Dr. Thomas Fingar, Deputy Director of National
Intelligence for Analysis and Chairman of the National Intelligence Council
current research in Asia has reported that South, Southeast, and East Asia will
face risks of reduced agricultural productivity as large parts of the region
face increased risk of floods and droughts. By 2025, cereal crop yields will
decrease 2.5-10 percent. The credit for identifying the migration due to
climate change goes to Jodi Jacobson. The number of peoples who will migrate to
other places to save themselves from the harsh extremities of weather due to
increasing temperature will be more than from any other type of migration in
the coming decades. Lack of livelihood opportunities: Lack of livelihood
opportunities in rural areas coupled with the absence of even day to day basic
needs like good schools, health care facilities, financial institutions,
inaccessibility and suitable markets have also compelled the rural peoples to
migrate to their nearest urban centers (Kumar,
communication and transport facilities:
The areas which once were inaccessible and beyond reach are now accessible
having good roads, communication and transport facilities. This has favored
migration of the rural communities. Whenever they have lean periods or off
season they migrate to urban areas for earning and then return back with the
start of sowing season. Such type of seasonal and circular (also known as
cyclical, oscillatory) migration has long been part of the livelihood portfolio
of poor people across India. Urban areas also represent better educational,
healthcare, employment opportunities which act as a pulling force for the rural
peoples towards them (Kumar, 2014).
Employment: Most of the rural peoples leave their houses and
move to cities in search of employment in various types of industries. In urban
areas many different type of industries flourish (Table 1) which have the
capacity to absorb work force in large numbers.
Table 1: Percentage of rural migrants employed in
different industries (NSSO, 2010)
Percentage of rural migrants
Mining and Quarrying
of Migration There are numerous causes of migration from rural to urban centers
and vice versa or from one region to another. Notable among these are (Razi , 2014):
conflicts and social tension
in civilization / culture
and Order situation
in the available social and economic opportunities and other amenities of life
between groups of people and or sectors.
distribution of benefits of economic development.
mobility and social status aspiations.
and family influences
for attaining lifestyle, performance and enjoyment.
of some sort of complex.
Migration aids in Urbanization. Thomson also viewed urbanization in the form of
migration. Preston considers rural urban migration as an indicator of regional
and sectoral distortions in the pattern of development. The UN also estimated
that about 60 per cent of the urban growth in developing countries is due to
the rate of natural increase of urban areas and the remaining 40 per cent is
due to migration. Migration is the chief mechanisim by which all the world’s
greatest urbanization trends have been accomplished (UNFPA, 2006).
Rural depopulation: Migration to urban areas results in rural
depopulation. As most of the productive work force leaves rural areas in search
of better opportunities the rural areas are left behind with the old and the
unable (UNFPA, 2006).
Migration is helpful in equalizing social status, income of rural urban
settlements, checking fragmentation of land holdings and promotes concept of
division of labour and specialization. Migration also helps in cultural
diffusion and cultural assimilation as peoples from diverse cultures settle and
in due course of time they share and exchange their cultural values and ethos
thus helping in cultural diffusion (UNFPA, 2006).
Income sent home in the form of monetary assistance can help in paying the
debts, increasing food security, help diversify livelihoods and to reduce
vulnerability associated with shocks. The NSSO 64th report also states that
nearly 10 per cent of the households in the rural areas had used remittances
for ‘debt repayment’ and nearly 13 per cent of the households in the urban
areas had used remittances for ‘saving/ investment’. The Reserve Bank of India
(RBI) has reported that Indians living abroad transferred $24.6 billion to
India in the fiscal year 2005-2006. India, thus, continues to retain its
position as the leading recipient of remittances in the world (UNFPA, 2006).
The National Commission for Rural Labour had first
focused on a policy agenda for migration. Recently, the NCEUS has suggested (GOI, 2017):
approach to labor migration within the framework of policies and programs for
legislation for informal workers, covering minimum labor standards and issues
specific to migrant labor
minimum social security package for informal workers incorporating three
elements crucial for extending the coverage to migrant workers, viz., complete
portability in terms of registration, payment of premium (where applicable),
and receipt of benefits
grassroots organizations in the registration of workers and that the workers be
issued a family smart security ID card, which could be simultaneously utilized
by the migrant and her/his family members
promotion, addressing the regulatory framework in urban areas, and an approach
to agricultural and rural development.
OF HUMAN MIGRATION:
Demographic Cosequences: Migration may have profound effects on the size,
structure and growth patterns of populations. Migration has effects on both
populations of the patterns of populations. Migration has effects on both
population of the places that people leave & on the populations of those in
which they settle. These effects vary with different types of migration &
length of migrants stay in places. The absence of large number of either men or
women may have a limited impact on the sending society in short term but if
they are absent for longer periods time their absence will have significant
effects on population growth rates in the medium and longer terms (Singapur & Sreenivasa, 2014).
Social Consequences: Migration may have important on the cultures &
societies migration also has effects on the cultures of both the places that
migrants leave and those in which they re-settle. These effects vary with
different types of migration the skills of the skills of the migrants & the
lengths of time involved (Singapur &
Political Consequences: Migration can have an impact on politics in both
the places which people leave and those to which they move Governments will
have to make policies to attract migrants, to persuade migrants to return, or
to limit migration to ensure that they have access to skills that they need.
These are political effects very with different types of migration (Singapur & Sreenivasa, 2014).
Economic Consequences: Migration can have significant effect on economics.
Migration has impact on the economies that people leave and those in which they
re-settle. These effects vary with different types of migration, the skills of
the migration and length of time involved (Singapur
& Sreenivasa, 2014).
NEED FOR POLICY
The issues and challenges of rural to urban
migration and its economic impact and social consequences have overriding
effects on the socioeconomic conditions of these people and hence significantly
draw the attention of policy makers and planners to address such issues. The
need of the hour is a lateral approach and need of different perspective to
address and understand this social flux. To control rural-urban migration,
there is need of policy interventions; and among many, few interventions have
been elaborated categorically by addressing the problems at the place of
origin. As the migration by far assumed to be distressed one, therefore policy
focus has been clustered around the distressed factors which are enlisted as
push factors in the model (Mohapatra, 2014):
fetched magnetic changes in the rural life – economically and socially. It has
made sure that each adult member of a family, male or female is provided with
100 days of work in year. This is certainly raises the purchasing power of the
family and help in getting their livelihood. This kind of stable, safe and
secured income has always motivated them to work in their native land and hence
possibly create an atmosphere to control migration to a great extent.
MNREGA has started with best of intentions but real benefits is not being
shared by the target demography. There is lot of loopholes at the stage of
implementation and accounting process. Bringing rigor and transparency in
implementation and furthermore community involvement may certainly control
migration in large scale.
better and adequate education and health facilities in the rural area is one of
the essentials to control the pace and magnitude of migration. Beside,
vocational education should be added to the curriculum and especially for rural
colleges so as to give a practical exposure to the rural students to get their
livelihood. The government should give importance to social sector development
especially on housing, drinking water, medical facilities and education too.
agricultural productivity may deter the migration process. the government
should promote sustainable agricultural practices in general and at the areas
where migration is dominant in particular through special provisioning of
irrigation, high yield variety seeds, fertilizer in subsidized rate. Beside,
provision of agricultural credit facility at large and crop insurance may add
to the effort.
become the secondary source of income among many families in rural areas. The
government should give more emphasis to the National Diary Plan to increase
milk production and thereby creating avenues to keep hold the people to their
indigenous occupations. Similarly focus should be given on fisheries and
poultry as a source of income and employment to revamp the rural economy.
should encourage other allied sectors to enhance job creation in the villages
through high value agriculture like horticulture, floriculture and etc.
income and employment, the government should ensure development of non-farm
rural activity, beside its farm counterpart.
Entrepreneurship Program should be initiated and incentives should be provided
to the rural youth to start their new venture with the help of available rural
resources. To make it more successful, the government should provide training
and teach them necessary skills for excellence.
has to be made to preserve the forest and to stop deforestation in the tribal
belt which may slow down the pace of migration and help the natives to get
their livelihood at their place of origin.
becomes an inevitable part of human being, without which life become miserable.
Life style of rural people has undergone drastic changes and therefore to
ensure sustainable rural development, there is need of continuous supply of
All the urban
facilities like mobile services, multi channel TV connection, and medical and
improved transportation facilities are very much essential to give a descent
living in rural areas. Faster rural infrastructure development will certainly
control migration in India.
magnitude and variety of internal migration flow in India as well as the
distresses associated with them are enormous. A basic overview of this complex
phenomenon makes clear that in spite of the vast contribution of migrants to
India?s economy the social protections available to them still remain sparse.
The economy of the country is based on agriculture; as a result rural to rural
stream dominates in the migration process. As far as reasons of migration are
concerned employment among males and „marriage? among female is the main reasons
of migration in the country. In spite of number of studies have been conducted
still there is a lot issues related to the migration has not been addressed.
The main cause and concern behind the migration is the economic factor; so
agriculture and non-farm sector at rural landscape should be given the top
priority to control migration.