PSK and free-throws your knee, hip, ankle

PSK 4U1 Culminating Performance Task
– 2018

Exercise Physiology:

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Energy
Systems Used:

For basketball you use
all energy systems, for example: ATP-PC system provides short bursts of immediate
energy, this usually lasts only 10 to 30 seconds and happens during quick
sprints up and down the court, jump-shots, rebounding, and intense defense. This system requires at least 3
minutes of rest to recover due to the absence of oxygen during this energy
system.

To train your ATP-PC
system you would need to do very intense but short actions such as lifting
heavy weights or sprinting 50-80 meters with a 3-minute break in between sets.

The next energy system
used is Glycolysis, this is used primarily between plays that last anywhere
from 30 seconds up to a minute. Examples where this is used is in full
defensive sets that start at full court, multiple quick changes of possession,
and full offensive sets that use inbounding plays and lots of screens. The
recovery of this system takes 60 seconds to 4 minutes for a full recovery.

To train your Glycolysis
system you should do moderate intensity exercises that would last from 30
seconds to a minute with a 2-minute break between sets, for example you can do
standard strength and conditioning training for this system.

 

The last energy system
used but probably the most important for basketball is the Aerobic energy
system. This system is essential for the continuous play that is required for
an entire basketball game. This system is used for long endurance activities
such as a long grueling basketball game, the Aerobic system also assists the
other systems in recovering sooner. This system can last anywhere from a couple
minutes to hours depending on the fitness level of the athlete, the rest time
for this system is around 10 minutes long.

To train your Aerobic
energy system you should do long moderate to low intensity workouts such as
cross country, 800m, or long interval training.

Muscle
Contractions Required for Sport:

Certain actions in
basketball require the use of concentric and eccentric muscle contractions to perform
the given task, some of these tasks can include: chest passes, free-throws,
rebounding/dunking, and 3-point shots. In chest passes, 3-point shots, and free-throws
your knee, hip, ankle and elbow extensors as well as shoulder and wrist flexors
shorten to perform the action which results in a concentric contraction. On the
other hand, during a fast-break dunk or while going up for a rebound your
quadriceps lengthen as you get ready to explode up with full force putting them
in an eccentric contraction, your hamstrings however are doing the opposite.
But as you jump and are in the air your hamstrings lengthen making them do an
eccentric contraction.

 

VO2
Demands in Basketball:

VO2 max is the
measurement of the maximum amount of oxygen a person can use during intense, or
maximal exercise. In basketball you have many short plays that require short
moments of intense physical demands and your VO2 max dictates how much oxygen
you can use during that event. Since this is an important factor in basketball
and can also show how efficient you are at utilizing the oxygen in your body it
makes sense that you would want to try and improve your VO2 max.

Average
VO2 max values for female and male basketball players have been reported in the
range of 44.0–54.0 and 50–60 mL/kg/min, respectively. (Taylor, J. (2004). A
tactical metabolic training model for collegiate basketball.
Strength Cond. J. 26:22–29.)

Having your VO2 max in
these levels will optimize your playing ability and be the difference in split
second 50/50 plays that can win or lose a game.

Anatomy in Basketball:

Main
Muscles Used in Basketball:

Basketball is a dynamic
sport that simultaneously activates muscles throughout your body to coordinate
complex, multi-joint movements with precision (Miguel Cavazos, Muscles Used
During Basketball). In basketball your hamstrings are used in every play, they
form at the back of your thighs and help your knee bend every time you lift
your leg to run across the court or bend down to get ready to take a shot. To
strengthen your quadriceps, I would recommend doing heavy weights with 5 sets
but low reps (around 3-6) as this will start of training the size and power of
your quads. Some exercises that will improve the strength and endurance of your
quadriceps are: squats, leg press, and leg extensions.

Your core muscles are
vital in basketball as the can help with your stability, shock absorption, and
adjusting your body in midair during layups. Your core is made up of many
muscles such as the rectus abdominis, external obliques, and erector spinae
just to name a few. These muscles help you stay upright against gravity, rotate
and bend your torso, and help with overall stability. To strengthen your core,
I would use exercises such as side crunches, Russian twists, and bicycle
crunches to target you obliques, Sit-ups, exercise ball knee tucks, and planks
for your rectus abdominis, and Roman chair hyperextensions, superman back
extensions, and deadlifts for your erector spinae. For your obliques and abs do
as many reps as possible for a minute with a 1-minute rest in between sets, for
the erector spinae do 20 reps with 1-minute rest for your Roman chair and
superman exercises and 12 reps of a moderate weight with a 1-minute rest
between sets for deadlifts.

 

 

 

 

 

Biomechanics:

Scientific
Advances in Equipment:

Basketball is a simple
sport with a court and two hoops however, this is what brought its attention to
the masses. Even though basketball is simple there has been many advancements
in its technology throughout the years since its conception.

In basketball’s infancy players
only wore canvas sneakers with rubber soles called “Chuck Taylor All-Stars”,
these shoes offered poor shock absorption, and ankle support. Since players
didn’t change their shoes as often as today’s NBA players their shoes got worn
out and deformed putting added stress on the bones and joints of the athletes,
basketball shoes stayed like this until the 80’s. Now in the present-day NBA there
is a plethora of different shoes an athlete can choose from, researchers
figured out how to give players small advantages over others solely based on
the type of shoe they could be wearing. If you look at athletes such as Kyrie
Irving or Stephen Curry you notice that their shoes have a greater surface area
on the bottom of the shoe for added grip, and better ankle support. This is due
to the nature of their play-style and the fact they are guards and must shift
directions much quicker than bigs, just wearing certain shoes will make a
difference in your performance whether it being an increase in speed, ankle
support, or shock absorption. Shoes are constantly being biomechanically
improved and put out into the market to keep the game of basketball interesting
and ever-changing.

 

Technique
of a Skill:

In basketball one of the
most vital skills is the ability to shoot the ball, many players have different
ways of doing this but the best all follow a general pattern to improve the
efficiency and transfer of force to maximize their chances of sinking the shot.
When you get ready to take your shot you want to keep your eyes on the target
and not the path of the ball, you should have your feet shoulder width apart
with a slight bend in your knees and holding the ball in your shot pocket. Line
up you’re your body so the ball and your shooting eye form a straight line,
make sure you are holding the ball with your fingertips parallel to the long
seams on the ball. Start by bringing the ball upwards with your elbow under the
ball, the ball needs to stay in front of you and should never go behind your
head, uncoil your body by springing up with your legs, core, and arms all
synchronized, your elbow and wrist should extend in a straight line towards the
hoop. Release the ball just before the apex of your jump, your wrist should be
relaxed and your fingers pointing at the basket, then hold your follow through
until the ball hits the rim. The best shooters all follow these rules but the
most important one is consistency, if you look at all the best shooters and
their form they always repeat the same motion and generate the same amount of
force in their shot, this is the difference between a good shooter and a great
one.

 

 

 

 3
Principles of Biomechanics in Basketball:

In biomechanics there are
seven principles one of them is stability, it is the ability to maintain
balance, it states: the lower the center of mass the larger the base of support,
and the closer the center of mass to the base of support. In basketball when shooting
a free-throw, players will get into a slightly bent down position to lower
their center of mass and increase their stability. For bigger players such as
centers they use all their mass by increasing their base of support and
lowering their center of mass when getting ready to box out an opponent for a
rebound.

Maximum force requires
the use of all possible joint movements the contribute to the objective, in
basketball this can be any action that requires maximum effort to be applied to
perform the action such as jumping or going up for a dunk.

Torque is angular motion
that is produced by the application of force acting at some distance from an
axis, in basketball this can occur during a windmill dunk as the force is away from
the axis being the shoulder and allows rotation to occur. 360 dunks and layups
are rotations of the entire body and require a great deal of force to be
produced to turn the players whole body 360 degrees.

 

 

 

 

Motor Development in
Basketball:

Movement
Intelligence in Basketball:

Movement intelligence is
the ability for us to identify and utilize
the sweet spots of ideal coordination, in basketball this is where efficiency and
using the quickest way to get around the floor to score points comes in. If you
look back at early shooting forms in basketball players used to shoot with both
hands which generated more force but skewed the ball left or right, modern
players shoot only with one hand while the other is used to guide the ball.
This if more efficient and requires less energy to be used, along with the
sweet spot of making a basket which is at a 52-degree release, 3 revolutions
per second of backspin and aiming for a spot 7 centimeters back from the center
of the basket these are all movements that players are slowly understanding and
changing their forms to optimize their chances of achieving better movement intelligence.

 Skill
Breakdown of a Skill:

In the 3-point shot a
player will pre-load his muscles by coiling up and getting ready to release all
that energy into his shot, this stage is the pre-stretch and the athlete looks
like he is slightly bent over and looks like his is about to jump. When the
player finally jumps all his muscles must activate together as this moment is known
as the critical instant where all the task become ready to execute at the same
time. The follow through happens right after the ball is released from the
players hands, it helps the athlete remember how he performed the action so the
next time he does it he doesn’t need to think about what his last shot was
like. It is easy to tell when the follow through occurs in basketball as
players will have one arm in the air with the wrist down.

Operant
Conditioning in Basketball:

Operant conditioning is a
type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. In basketball when
you play good during games or always show up to practice your coach will reward
you with praise and more playing time, this reinforces your positive image
linked with working hard and getting playing time because of it. This method
turns those who are already hard workers into gym rats who will do anything to
get better whereas those who have off games or don’t show up to practice will
have consequences and result in them linking negative things with playing bad
and going to practice. Coaches will use this to try and shape and mold athletes
into their minds ideal player even if it doesn’t line up with the athletes own.

Classic
Conditioning in Basketball:

Classic conditioning is a
type of learning that takes two unconnected external stimuli and links them to
one natural occurring stimulus. In basketball when a player hears a whistle
that tells them to stop or go but by itself a whistle doesn’t mean much and won’t
garner a response but if you take a whistle and the stop or start of a game and
put these two unrelated things together they will be associated together and cause
a certain response to occur which is players starting or stopping when they
hear the whistle.

 

 

 

Sports Psychology in
Basketball:

Wheel
of Excellence in Basketball:
The
wheel of excellence is made up of seven parts and all of them are connected to
one central theme of believing you can do it and committing to it. To succeed
in anything, you must make sure you accomplish all the seven steps, if you ever
failed at something it was due to one of the steps not being completed. In
basketball these steps play major roles in becoming an all-star athlete in the
sport. When I try to improve in basketball I will take certain steps to try and
improve my game, when I start to practice it has my full attention and I block
out all possible distractions that might disrupt my practice. I mentally
prepare myself for everything that comes with practicing basketball while believing
that I can accomplish my goals and listen to constructive evaluation to improve
my game based on feedback from coaches or players. Things I could improve on
would be my commitment to basketball as I only practice when I feel like it and
don’t dedicate enough time to the game, another zone that needs improvement is
positive imagery as I don’t think of my body as a basketball players body due
to my lack of height which affects how I play the game and what I focus on when
practicing.

 

 

 

 

Self-Talk
in Basketball:

Self-talk is important in
everyday life, whether you are lying in bed trying to talk yourself to get up
or preparing yourself for a presentation self-talk plays a vital role, and
sports are no different when it comes to self-talk. When players go to take a free-throw,
or go up for a shot majority of them are giving a positive self-talk, it could
be along the lines of “relax”, “it’s going to go in”, or “he can’t guard me”. All
these things said are positive reinforcement to improve the athletes game and
give them a mental edge against their opposition, if you think that you can’t
do something or that your shot won’t go in it won’t cause you don’t think you
can do it. If I were giving myself a self-talk I would always tell myself what
I would want to hear such as “I’m making that shot”, or “I’ll make this
free-throw” as this tells my body that I can do it and will make me perform at
my best.

Imagery
in Basketball:

Imagery in basketball would
be visualizing yourself making a shot, layup, block, or getting a rebound, while
playing a sport, before you do an action you visualize what could happen and
more so what you want to happen. This is imagery, and it helps athletes prepare
themselves mentally for whatever action they are about to take. When you go to take
a shot, you don’t visualize yourself missing because that would be a negative
outcome, I would use imagery to picture my shots going in, doing a nice
crossover, or layup, there are many studies showing that positive imagery or
thinking of a good outcome leads to that given outcome rather than negative
imagery which leads to negative outcomes.

Success
Cycle/Failure Cycle in Basketball:

The success cycle starts
with believing in your potential and the amount of potential leads to the
amount of action you take and that leads to results based on the action you took;
the cycle then repeats and this is what gives someone success. I have seen the
success cycle in basketball with players like Isaiah Thomas who are undersized
and taken late in the draft and are called busts. Because Isaiah believed in
his potential he worked on his craft as much as possible which made him take
action, that lead to great results such as him now being in a starting role and
being talked about as one of the best point-guards as of right now. The failure
cycle is the opposite of the success cycle as players who get trapped in the
failure cycle never seem to get out of it. An example of it shown would be any
NBA bust. They had bad seasons or injuries and that led them to not believe in
themselves which hurt their potential so when they acted they didn’t get the
results they wanted. This threw them into to a vicious cycle where the only way
out was to not try anymore and this led to short careers and being known as
busts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nutrition for Basketball:

Pre-game
Guidelines for Basketball:

When getting ready to
play a long basketball game it is important that you properly fuel your body
with the food needed for the match. It is best to eat a meal
rich in complex carbohydrates an hour or two before the basketball game starts.
This will give the player a steady boost of energy during the entire game.
Foods rich in complex carbohydrates include pasta, cereal, vegetables, peanut
butter and bread. It is also important to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of
liquids throughout the day as well as during the game itself.

Items
to Improve On:

I could improve on the
type of carbohydrates that I eat as most of them are simple carbs and have
empty calories, I also don’t drink enough water before or during the game which
leads to me being dehydrated and performing poorly.

Strengths
of My Diet:

When I eat, I always try
to eat balanced meals even when the meals are not the healthiest so I can make
sure I am getting all the nutrients that I need. I space out my meals
throughout the day and try to always eat something rather than missing out on
it due to time constraints.

 

 

Sports Injuries in
Basketball:

Common
Injuries in Basketball:

Basketball has many
injuries that come with playing the sport, the most common injury is a sprain whether
it be to the wrist, finger, knee, or ankle. A sprain is a stretching or tearing
of one or more ligaments, they can occur in basketball when you try to change
directions to fast or land awkwardly on a limb. Treatment for ankle sprain
should follow the R.I.C.E method of rest, ice for the first 48-72 hours,
compression for the first 24-36 hours, and elevating the injury above your heart
for 2-3 hours a day. Head trauma such as lacerations or concussions are also
common in basketball and be caused by colliding with a defender or getting hit
in the head. Treatment for mild concussions is rest and over-the-counter
painkillers but if it is more severe you should seek medical attention right
away. The next common injury in jumper’s knee or patellar tendonitis, it is the
inflammation of the patellar tendon. It is caused by repetitive stress placed
on the patellar tendon or quadriceps tendon due to jumping which happens all
the time in basketball. Treatment for this injury should follow R.I.C.E, rest for
the injury however should take 2-4 weeks.

 

 

 

 

 

Sociology of Basketball:

History
of Basketball:

Basketball was created in
1891 in a YMCA training school in Springfield, Massachusetts by the Canadian
James Naismith, the sport originally only had 13 rules and was played with a
soccer like ball being shot at peach baskets 10-feet of the ground. Since then
the sport of basketball has changed tremendously and is one of the most popular
sports today.

Equipment
Required for Basketball:

The equipment needed to
play basketball is few and is not necessarily needed to play a simple pickup
game. To play the sport of basketball you must have basketball shoes, a court,
uniform, shot clock, hoop, and a whistle.

Barriers
in Basketball:

Barriers in basketball
can range from disability to socio-economic standings. Players with
disabilities cannot play in the NBA but have disability leagues for them to
still enjoy the sport and play it competitively, racial barriers are not that prevalent
in basketball as other sports due to the wide demographics of ethnicities in
the sport. Athletes that are from low socio-economic classes will find it hard
to enlist in rep leagues as they require a good amount of money to participate
in however, this does not stop them from participating in the sport as a whole
and from even going pro.

 

Club
Organization in Basketball:

When starting basketball,
you can start in recreation leagues that are usually offered through the city
and have different leagues based on age and skill, the next level would be high
school. When playing for your high school team you will be facing many players
with different skill levels and be required to consistently improve your game.
College basketball such as the NCAA governs all collegiate basketball and
teams, players in this league will be looking to go pro and will not back down
from the increase of fierce competition as they all are looking to make a
living from the sport. The NBA is the highest level that one can play
basketball at, players in this league are the best of the best and some might even
get the chance to go down in the basketball hall of fame. This level requires
you to focus all your time on the sport as this is now treated as your job.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basketball’s
Long-Term Athlete Development Model:

Basketball fits the
L.T.A.D model, active start is for ages 0-6 years old and basketball offers
leagues for this age group that helps them stay active and works on their fitness
and movement skills development. FUNdamentals is for ages 6-9 years old and
youth leagues offer this to promote participation, overall development, and cognitive
development of required skills. Learning to train would fall under the youth
league while training to train and training to compete would be rep leagues as
they offer more competition and better skill development opportunities.
Training to win would be provincial and national leagues that offer the best players
from all over the world to compete head-to-head and have highly skilled coaches
and trainers helping players reach their full potential. Active for life would
be senior recreation leagues that focus on being active and friendly competition.

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