Madison or the use of contaminated water

Madison HastCIC 003Disease PaperAnni MooreJanuary 29, 2018Salmonellosis: Salmonella Abstract: Salmonellosis is a widespread disease in all animals. This disease is caused by a bacterium in the genus Salmonella. Salmonella is the second most common bacterial illness that is spread through contaminated food in the United States. The bacteria can be found in feces of infected animals, most commonly birds and reptiles, such as turtles, tortoises and iguanas. It can also be found in cattle, pigs, dogs, and cats. The bacteria lives in the intestinal tracts and on the bodies of these animals meaning that it can be directly transmitted to humans through touch, so it is important to practice frequent and thorough washing of the hands; especially after handling the animals, their waste products, or anything in their environment (Harms, 2008).Introduction:         There is that one food that everyone loves to eat but know they should not: raw cookie dough. When baking cookies, the urge to eat the cookie dough instead of baking it is like a monster inside the belly.  You can’t resist the delicious food. Before eating that cookie dough, there are many things to learn.  There are raw eggs or egg products used as ingredients in cookie dough.  Ingesting raw eggs or egg products can cause Salmonellosis infection.  Many people are not aware of the causes of this infection.  This infection, caused by the bacterium Salmonella, is contracted by ingesting raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products, or the use of contaminated water or food (Falkenstein, 2018).  The purpose of this paper is to show awareness about the many causes, symptoms, treatments/preventions, mortality rate, and prevalence of Salmonellosis. Background:         Salmonellosis is food poisoning caused by the consumption of eating raw food or consuming contaminated food and water (Falkenstein, 2018). Animals based products carry this common disease. In 1885, an American veterinary scientist, Daniel E. Salmon, discovered the first strain of Salmonella (Falkenstein, 2018). This strain of bacteria was found in a pig intestine. Salmonella is gram-negative motile bacilli (Klochko, 2017). Potential enteric pathogens and a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness is salmonella (Klochko, 2017). In addition, Salmonella species have been implicated in a spectrum of other diseases, including enteric or typhoid fever, bacteremia, endovascular infections, focal infections (eg, osteomyelitis), and enterocolitis (Klochko, 2017). Children have the highest risk of contracting salmonella. Children under five years of age have a higher risk than any other age group. Young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are the more likely to have severe infections (CDC, 2008). The incidence of Salmonella infections in the United States has been stable since 2004 but has decreased approximately 8% from 1996-1998 levels. In 2007, the reported annual incidence of salmonellosis was 14.9 cases per 100,000 population (Klochko, 2017). Causes: Salmonellosis is only caused by ingesting Salmonella bacterium. There are many different species of Salmonella that can cause the illness. The different species are Salmonella enterica  and Salmonella bongori (WHO, 2016). Contaminated food or polluted surface water and standing water, such as in shower hoses or unused water dispensers, can cause salmonellosis. Poor kitchen hygiene, especially in restaurant settings, can lead to significant outbreaks. The sources of bacterium that carry Salmonella include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products. The only way to contract this disease is to ingest it. The bacterium in these products can affect people in different ways. The bacteria will attach to the cells lining the intestines and intestinal tract where they produce toxins and attack the intestinal cells.  The signs and symptoms can come in many different forms. Symptoms/Signs:         Typically, people do not experience any signs or symptoms when they have this disease. But when symptoms are present they include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever, diarrhea, chills, headache, and blood in the stool. Once the disease in contracted, symptoms can occur within 6-72 hours (Marler, 2006).  Signs and symptoms last two to seven days, whereas diarrhea may last up to 10 days. It may take up to several months before the bowels return to normal. This disease has a very low mortality rate of less than 3% (Mead et al., 1999). Treatments/Preventions:         There are ways to treat the symptoms.  The use of antibiotics and or anti-diarrhea medications help with relieving the symptoms, although, doctors tend to not prescribe antibiotics due to our body’s natural defense to unknown and foreign bacteria. Usually, our bodies can treat the disease without any treatment. The acids within the human stomach act as a defense mechanism by killing the disease before it can reach the intestines. The acids in the human stomach are so harsh and strong that the bacteria is killed almost instantly. When the stomach is full of food, the amount of stomach acid available to kill or break down the bacteria is reduced, making the process a lot harder. This allows the bacteria to begin the journey to the intestinal tract, where it begins to infect the body. The bacteria attach to the cells lining the intestinal tract and affect the body. There are also ways to prevent getting the disease. Prevention starts with washing your hands, keeping things separate to prevent cross-contamination, and avoid eating raw eggs or food products containing raw eggs (Klein, 2008). Cookie dough is a product that many do not realize can cause Salmonellosis. Vaccination of poultry can help reduce the prevalence of this disease and also help with the prevention of getting it as well. Now that the treatments and preventions are known, knowing where the disease is prevalent will help to eliminate the chances of contracting this disease.Prevalence: Salmonellosis has a higher prevalence on farms or in areas of farm animals and other related animals. Shellfish are known carriers of viral bacterial pathogens. Seafood and shellfish were accounted for 7.42% of all food poisoning related deaths from Salmonella infections between 1990 and 1998. Salmonella was isolated from oysters from each coast of the United States, and 7.4% of all oysters tested contained Salmonella (Brands et al., 2005). The incidence of Salmonella infections has risen dramatically since the 1980s. With a loss of productivity in billions of dollars annually, many cases are linked to seafood, particularly to the consumption of shellfish (Brands et al., 2005). An estimated 1.4 million annual cases of salmonellosis in the United States result in approximately 500 fatalities yearly. Salmonellosis is characterized by fever, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Since the 1970s, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required the shellfish industry to use fecal coliforms (bacteria found in fecal material) as indicators of contamination within harvesting waters and oysters (Brands et al., 2005) Conclusion:

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