IntroductionThe The recovery ensures the safety and

IntroductionThe word ‘Recovery’ means in general the action or process of regaining possession or control of something stolen/lost or a return to a normal state of health, mind, or strength. And so the ‘Disaster Recovery’ described by the IFRC, “Recovery refers to those programmes which go beyond the provision of immediate relief to assist those who have suffered the full impact of a disaster to rebuild their homes, lives and services and to strengthen their capacity to cope with future disasters.” Fig. No. 1: The recovery of house and workerSource :From crisis to recovery (IFRC)The recovery phase varies from the 0 to 72 hrs to the 3 to 5 years and as per the period slot the recovery phases defined. The working organisation and the policy body they follow define the recovery phases as in the recovery phase multiple players working.As per the United Methodist Committee on Relief (UMCOR) the recovery phase differentiated into,Search and Rescue: This plan might last for hours to the days. Since UMCOR not involved in direct search and rescue operation.Emergency Relief: In exact aftermath of Disaster people requires the daily need material to alive, this include the distribution of ration and all like to live.Early Recovery: Transition/temporary shelter provided to the affected people and the more stable opportunities checked and worked.Medium to long term Recovery: The transition houses changed with the permanently housed and so the all of the facilities back to their original position to work.  The American Red Cross recognizes that our disaster relief unfolds in the following stages:Heroic PhaseHoneymoon PhaseDisillusionment PhaseReconstruction PhaseSimilarly, the institutions have their own policies and strategies to work in community as per their priorities. The UNHCR, IFRC are the jiants of organisations working in the relief and rehabilitation phase in various places of world from Middle Asia to the South America and covering all of the globe such as Syria, Jordan, Srilanka, Indonesia, US and so on. The recovery ensures the safety and so the some benefits,Economic security (Assured basic Income)Food security (Physical and Economical access to food)Health security (Relative freedom from diseases and infection)Environmental security (Access to clean water and air and non-degraded land)Personal security (Security from Violence and threat)Community security (Security of Cultural identity)Political Security (Protection of basic human rights)(Source:ABC of conflict and disaster: Displaced populations and long term humanitarian assistance ) Policy GuidelinesOn the context of local area, culture, geology and all the methods of disaster shelter relief varies. As per the IFRC (What we do in Shelter),Shelter reliefFollowing a disaster, shelter activities immediately focuses on saving lives. This is particularly urgent where the affected people are exposed to harsh climatic conditions such as extreme cold or heat.Rapid shelter solutions include tents and shelter kits, or materials to build or repair homes. Alternatively, temporary accommodation in public buildings or with host families will be supported. Beyond survival, the key considerations are:providing protection from the climateensuring privacy and dignityproviding personal safety and securityWith context of this the permanent shelter also have the same objectives as of the transition  or temporary since the mass settlement is very difficult to manage because of the problems in distribution. The policy included, Focus on Local Solutions:Its seen that the lack of involvement of locals from the community in the recovery come up in the full/partial failure of the rehabilitation. As the guidelines of IFRC defines with the context of local, culture, geography and all the demand of houses and so shelter varies. So the local material, labourers, masons, mystries, technicians and all related people should be involved in the recovery program for the fulfillment of demands. This not only ensure the completion of projects in time but the satisfaction to the community about the help and on other hand the employment and so the strengthen of economy also ensured. Shelter Recovery and Settlement Planning:Successful shelter repair and construction has to go hand in hand with finding solutions for a number of other issues such as water and sanitation, fuel for cooking and heating, waste management and settlement planning. Post disaster reconstruction activities provide opportunities for men and women to learn new skills related to construction, planning and related issues such as managing natural environmental resources and local project management.Shelter Disaster Preparedness and Risk Reduction:For many people living along riverbanks or the sea, on mountain slopes or in poorly built neighbourhoods, the risk of flooding, earthquakes and other hazards constantly threaten their lives.  The ability of vulnerable households to build safer homes can be improved by introducing disaster resistant technologies, raising awareness of the local risks and hazards explaining to vulnerable communities how they can manage these risks better. In order to achieve this the IFRC has developed and promoted a tool named PASSA (Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter Awareness). Public Building and Community Infrastructure:  Disasters result in damage and destruction to public buildings such as hospitals, health clinics, schools and community centres. To ensure the long term rehabilitation of the community the public infrastructure should be in working condition at the end of the settlement project. The administrative buildings ensures the proper working and so provision of all the distribution of services to the affected population. And the school, hospitals and community centers helps to regain their livelihood by engaging the various factors. (source: what we do in shelter, IFRC) Long-term Shelter1. Bhuj EarthquakeThe Gujarat earthquake was the one of destructive type experienced by the India till in terms of casualties and the economic loss. Since there were the large earthquakes but the data was not available till. With awakening of Bhuj earthquake the equations totally changes. In the recovery phase being the important factor, the time, the various approaches adapted by the government and so the working organisations to reach to the community fast and also efficiently.Owner Driven Subsidiary Housing Participatory Contractor-driven In-situ:In in-situ approach, a house reconstructed on site where the destruction happens.   Contractor-driven Ex-nihiloThe Ex-situ approach accepts the site out of the affected area, totally new site from the destructed for the construction of housesSource: Housing reconstruction in post-earthquake Gujarat: a comparative analysisThe above table showing the satisfaction data with the approaches. And from below figurs we can observe the differences. The houses constructed on the basis of contracter is totally contradictory from the culture in which the community lives. So at the end of distribution people left the houses and backs to their old houses. In some of the cases those distributed houses used as the godowns for the storage purposes. Fig : House built with owner driven approachFig. abandoned house built on contractor driven approach 2. Indian Ocean Tsunami: Tamil NaduThe Tsunami disaster on the morning of December 26th, 2004 caused thousands of casualties and created enormous destruction in the twelve affected countries around the Indian Ocean. South Africa. In India alone, more than three-quarters of the fatalities being women and 30-foot tall waves. Fig. no. 2 (a):Housing colony in Tamil NaduTable: Housing status in various districts in Tamil NaduThe houses are well constructed but far from their livelihood, such as the fisher communities, far from the ocean, affecting the employment and so the livelihood directly. 3. Indian Ocean Tsunami : B. Aceh, IndonesiaThe hardest hit region was the conflict ridden province of Aceh in Indonesia, with an estimated 165,000 people dead or missing and around 15 percent of the surviving population made homeless. operations. A multitude of actors from all over the world took action in the affected areas and contributed to the rebuilding of the devastated areas, following a “build back better” policy. In the light of the huge number of people made homeless, one of the most prominent aspects of the reconstruction process was housing, where about 130,000 reconstruction homes were built in Aceh alone after the disaster. (Kitzbichler, 2011). With this the two approaches adopted in Aceh for the reconstruction of houses self-build and contractor approaches. Self-build ApproachA practical applied community-based self-build approach would put the recipients in the position of the contractor. Furthermore does a community-based reconstruction approach mobilize solidarity among the members of a community and therefore creates social capital. Strengthened community ties and social networks could then support resilience in future disasters. (Kitzbichler, 2011)Contractor ApproachThis decision was prompted by concerns for an implementation that met standards of quality, tight timelines and was cost-saving. It was arguably the easiest and quickest way to return to normality by exploiting the economies of scale and through the standardization of house types. Time was an important factor, as the reconstruction period in the Master-plan for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction. (Kitzbichler, 2011)Similar with the case of Tamil Nadu in India the approach of construction affects the livelihood and so the community. Because of the direct involvement of community the houses built is resilient to the disaster at the same time very efficient. And ended with the strengthening the local economies and so the employment.

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