Innovation pathways of nervous system that send

Innovation of transport
and industry have led to provocative motion environments, to cars,  trains, funfair rides, aircraft, and
simulators.1 Thus Motion sickness is a common problem in people
travelling by train, airplane, boat and especially cars. Also people experience
motion sickness from virtual reality, displays and also smart phones.2
Susceptibility to motion sickness is higher in individuals  suffering from spatial disorientation
(35.05%), migraine (26.31%), gastrointestinal disorders (26.82%) and those who
more sensitive to unpleasant odors (24.64%). Females (27.3%) are more
susceptible to motion sickness than males(16.8%).6 Initial symptoms
is discomfort in stomach, followed by nausea. With rapid worsening of symptoms
there can be salivation changes, dizziness, retching and sopite related symptoms.3,4

The primary functions
of the vestibular system are spatial orientation, maintenance of balance, and
stabilizing of vision through vestibular–ocular reflexes.15Motion is
sensed by the brain through three different pathways of nervous system that send
signals coming from inner ear( sensing motion, acceleration, gravity), the
eyes(vision),and the deeper tissues of body surface(proprioceptors). When there
is an unintentional movement of the body, the brain responds to unfamiliar
motion stimuli which are transmitted to vestibular nuclei. This unfamiliar
motion stimuli is sensed by vestibular labyrinth, the eyes and proprioceptors
and travel to vestibular nuclei, then through cerebellum to vomiting centre
located in the parvicellular formation of medulla oblongata, this conflict
among the brain and the three pathways lead to motion sickness.16
Currently the “neural mismatch theory” states that motion sickness can
originate from within a single sensory system (e.g., canal-otolith
interaction), or between two or more sensory systems (e.g. visual-vestibular
interaction).19,20

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As the vestibular system plays a crucial role in the inducement of
motion sickness, vestibular habituation exercises will help reduced motion
sickness. Repetitive vestibular stimulation can therefore cause changes in
Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) and at the same time a reduction in sensitivity
to motion sickness.30 Habituation exercises
are based on the mechanism that repeated exposure to a provocative stimulus
(e.g. head movements) will lead to a reduction of the motion-provoked symptoms.32
These exercises cause a habituation effect
characterized by decreased sensitivity and duration of symptoms can
occur in as quickly as 2 weeks but can take as long as 6 months.31
Effects of breathing strategy have explored by number of experts. Paul Lehrer a
leading researcher in area of relaxation training showed that breathing
approach can be quite successful in in reducing physiologic activation of the
sympathetic nervous systems.33

A commonly used Diagnostic
Criteria for Identifying the Severity of acute motion sickness and the
Diagnostic Scale, referred to as Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire which
is a reliable method for scoring overall motion sickness with the use of four
subscales is used in this study for rating these symptoms of motion and to
differentiate motion sickness symptoms along four dimensions: gastrointestinal,
central, peripheral, and sopite-related.36

 Motion sickness affects nearly all people who
travel by land, sea, or air, little documentation exists regarding prevention
and management. Repeated recurrence of sickness is not desirable or practical
to daily living. Limited evidence is available for Controlled breathing and
visual-vestibular habituation training for motion sickness that won’t provoke
the undesirable symptoms and can last for upwards of a year. Thus aim of this
study was to help determine the effectiveness of visual vestibular habituation
and controlled breathing for motion sickness. The research questions were: Is
visual-vestibular habituation and controlled breathing effective for motion
sickness? Will there be any difference in severity of motion sickness when
treated with visual vestibular habituation and controlled breathing for motion
sickness?

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