In and barangays can only exercise powers

In today’s international community
of polities the Federalism is an important and broadly implemented feature.
Around 70% of the world states are believed to have at least some element of
federalism, around 20% of the nations are considered to be federal states, and
40% of the world’s population lives in these countries. The combination between
self-rule and shared rule is of greatest importance in a federal state, regions
or provinces should have. The federalism involves the linkage of individuals,
groups and polities in a limited union that provinces for active pursuit for
common end and at the same time maintains the integrities of all parties.

The Republic of the
Philippines is currently under a unitary form of government which is extremely
centralized. In this form of government, the president is both the head of the
state and head of the government. This means that he has a general supervision
over local governments which are dependent on the national as the constitution
has concentrated political powers and authority in national government. Our
autonomous regions, provinces, municipalities and barangays can only exercise
powers and enact policies that the central government chooses to delegate to
them. Recently, some politician, scholars and experts are looking into the
federal option of the next step for Philippine governance. Not only Philippines
but also other countries are interested on adopting the federal system. After
devolution, some argued that federalism is the next logical step in the
Philippines. The one who has a concrete example of federal structure is the
proposal of Senator Aquilino “Nene” Pimentel Jr., Which is a semi presidential form
of government in the Philippines. Under this system, we will have a President
and a Prime Minister. The President will be directly elected by the
people.  He will be the head of the
state, commander in chief of the armed forces, Chief Diplomat and the symbol of
unity of the nation. Also, will be the responsible for national and foreign
affairs. The Prime Minister will be elected by the House of
Representative/National Assembly and formally appointed by the President. He
will be head of government and will appoint the members of the Cabinet and all
other officials not within the powers of the President. Also, he “runs the
government” and is responsible for domestic and economic policy. Proposed that
there should be two constitutionally established orders of government primarily
accountable to its respective electorates, the federal government and regional
government. Each level of government has its particular jurisdiction.  The surgical operation will create 11 Federal
States out of the existing political subdivisions of the country and one
federal administrative region. The federal powers will concerns the entire
nation while the regional power will be the basic service to the people. The
shared power is the basic service that is best provided under a national
standard and all the residual powers are retained by the Federal Government but
may be delegated to the regional government. The Resolution also disperses the
seats of power of the major branches of government. The executive department
will hold offices in the Federal Administrative Region of Metro-Manila, the
legislative department will hold office in the Federal State of Central Visayas
and the judicial department will hold office in the Federal State of Northern
Mindanao. By so doing, aside from the Luzon, the two other major geographical
regions of the country, the Visayas and Mindanao will now fully appreciate that
they are important parts – not merely appendices – of the Republic. The
legislative powers of the Republic are shared mainly by the law-making powers
of the Federal Republic and the States. But the provincial, city, municipal and
barangay powers and structures are basically left intact. In terms of
allocating the resources of the Republic, Each state will be able to keep 80% of their income and
funds to themselves, and only 20% of that would go to the Federal National
Government. And out from 80% of each state, 30% of that would go to the Local
State Government and 70% would go to the Provinces, Cities, Municipalities and
Barangays. Even we are under federalism we are still one country: one
Constitution, one Flag, one National Anthem, one Foreign Policy, one Armed
Forces one National Police Force, one Public Education System, one Central Bank
and Monetary System.

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The Philippine has 7,107 islands
each with diverse tribes and cultures and obviously each region has their own
specific needs. By shifting from a unitary to a federal type of government we
can achieved economic reforms, equal justice, and progress to each state and
decongest metro Manila as some would have put it. Right now most of the
developments are in metro Manila, with federalism this would be shared across
the nation. Advocates of federalism believe that the structure of federal
system would respond to the general obstacle and differences cause by cultural
diversity on governance because it allows fragmentation and at the same time
promoting national interest. 

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