Every and discriminatory beliefs, actions, desires, projects,

Every
human born as different individual, some have differences in their physic and
some have differences in their psychology. Discrimination comes as the result
of differences, some people who cannot accept the differences they will do
anything to make other people who does not same as them feels uncomfortable.
There is so much discrimination, and racism is the branch of discrimination.
Racism is discrimination based on racial, racial identical with skin color,
shape of eyes, language, religion, and may just from our origin.  Today, the term of racism is used more
broadly to apply to racial unfairness and discriminatory beliefs, actions,
desires, projects, persons, groups, social institutions, and practices (Garcia,
1997: p. 1436). Racism has been hereditary from generation to generation,
recurrent feature of the social sciences has been efforts to prove that there
are inherited racial and gender differences these efforts, although earlier
debunked, become reincarnated under different guises (Fairchild, 1991: p.101).
People who do not accept the differences between each other, create the gap and
social classification based on race and put them self in top of classification.
This social classification inherited from generation to generation and makes the
great depression in America society.

Since
the social classification exist in society, people who felt himself and his
races better and at the top of the classification will doing racial
discrimination to the other races. It was because they felt that they were more
powerful and civilized than other races. When discussing racism, according to
Joseph in (Srivanto, 2001: p.13-15), there are two conflicting perspectives,
the first is racism in the scientific perspective of human effort to identify
both of ethnological and anthropological about the origins of man and classify
humans based on patterns physical possession. Racism is also understood as the
non- scientific perspective that is a form of prejudice. In this case racism is
a belief (belief) that human beings can be differentiated into various races
and a member of a race will be inferior to other races. Basically the term
racism is used to identify people and not to classify people based on their
physical condition, but at the field people use racism to classify people and
as a reason to deal inappropriate action toward other races.

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There is much
contradiction between das sollen and das sein in this novel. Das sollen mean
everything that is necessity, or that required us to think and act in
particular in the face of certain problem or reality. Das sollen also can be
interpreted as everything that should happen or something based on theory and
based on the rules should occur. Das sollen determine every human to respect
each other, every religion also teach us to respect each other. Any religion
said that every human has same value in the presence of God, religion never
distinguish human depend on their skin color, racial, or tribe but depend on
their faith and piety, so no matter you are God only see you based on your faith
and  piety. It was not only determine by
religion but also determine by government. Every government has their own rule
to prevent discrimination and punish offender of discrimination.

Das sein in To Kill A Mockingbird novel is different
with Das sollen, the notion of das sein is anything that is execution of
everything that set in das sollen. In this novel there are so much racial
discrimination between white skin people and black skin people. The examples of
das sein in this novel are people always called them as negro. not only called
them as negro but they also seeing them as human with lowest degree, in
education black skin people have small chance to study, in job opportunity
black skin people also considered inappropriate to work in office, they only
get job from the field as laborers with low payment, and in living environment
they also get different place with white skin people.

In
this research, the researcher would like to present the condition or the
representative of racism on the novel “To
Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee. The researcher will analyze Harper Lee’s
novel using sociology of literature approach. Racism viewed as a problem that
not only derived from individual psychology or pathology, but also from the
pattern of cultural representations embedded with practice, discourse, and the
subjectivity of Western society (Barker, 2004: 266). According to Oliver C. Cox
(1948) that all the values that they have “unacceptable”,
“right”, and “good”; and conversely all other public values
“unacceptable”, “wrong” and “ugly”. The only
difference between ethnocentrism and racism ethnocentrism is that the
difference not based on the grooves of a racial or skin color.

This
study chosen because the researcher interested to study about literature, and
the researcher wants to know about the effect of racism in that era, so the researcher
try to study and to understand, and try to present the condition of racism in
United State in that era.  Racism always
be an interesting problem to discuss, and from the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee the researcher want to feel
the social and political condition, and to feel the racism that know as great depression in 1930th through
character of Calpurnia and Tom Robinson.

 The novel tells the story that represents a
situation that thought to reflect real life, or to stimulate the imagination
(Danesi 2010: 75). Many novels, tells about life in the past. The novel takes
the theme of racism have also been many published, as in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Nelle
Harper Lee. The novel is set in the 1930s when Recession Massive (Great
Depression) in the town of Maycomb, Alabama.

A.   
Previous
Study

There have been relevant previous
researchers investigated Harper Lee’s “To
Kill A Mockingbird” novel, their
research support this research paper as follow:

Winarni,
B. (2013) investigated Affection and Prejudice In To Kill A Mockingbird Novel By Harper Lee (1960); A Psychoanalytic
Approach. The study examined the affection and prejudice in To Kill A Mockingbird. The study reveals
the major character reflects his affection and prejudice in this novel based on
the psychoanalytic analysis. The study was descriptive analysis used To Kill A Mockingbird as primary data
source and other sources as secondary data sources, the study applied some
approaches, structural analysis approach used to analyze the element of novel,
and psychoanalytic approach used to analyze the structure of major character’s
personality in To Kill a Mockingbird
novel.  The study found that the problem
of the major character causes the conflict, it resulted prejudice because of
the struggle to find the fact about the case of his client, after all his
change of social status makes him be respected by society.

            Second, Hatmani, W. (2014) analyzed Parenting Style of
Atticus Finch in Harper Lee’s To Kill A
Mockingbird novel through behaviorist perspective. The study was a
qualitative research using descriptive analysis. The study found that the
author illustrated psychological phenomenon that influenced by environment,
parenting style was the environment that gave impact on child’s personality.
Parenting style could forming habit, behavior, and provide model, which be
reference of child’s.

Third
Fitrisari, M. N. (2016) on her study titled READER RESPONSE TO RACISM IN HARPER LEE’S NOVEL: TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD. The study analyzed
racism by using reader responses to show reader responses about racism on the
GoodRead website. The study was a qualitative research, used GoodRead website
as primary data, and other resources as secondary data. The study found that
there are 18 issues on reader responses. Gender, age, race, country, and
religion as background of the readers. Racism victim will lost their human
right as the causes of the readers disagrees’ reason. The readers interested in
racism issue because it was showed that Tom Robinson rape white people despite
him never do that.

 

B.  Problem Statements

Problem statement is significant for any research.
It makes the research become more understandable. Based on the title and the
background of the study, this study takes the problem of “How is racism
reflected in Harper Lee’s To Kill a  Mockingbird?”

 

C.   
Objectives

a.    To
analyze the novel based on its structural elements.

b.    To
analyze racism in the novel based on the Sociological approach

D.  Limitation of the Study

In this study, the
researcher’s focuses on the analysis of Racism in Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird novel (1960) based
on the Sociological approach.

 

E.    
Benefits
of the Study

1.     
Theoretical
Benefit

The result of this study is expected to be useful
for the readers about the story of To
Kill a Mockingbird, thus they may know the causes and the impact of racism
in human life.

2.     
Practical
Benefit

The researcher also hopes it can give contribution
to the further researchers who want to conduct the similar term of study with
different topic.

 

F.    
Paper
Organization

The research paper of “Racism
Reflected in Harper Lee’s To Kill A
Mockingbird (1960): A Sociological Approach” is divided in thirty-one
chapters. The details of paper organization are; Chapter I is introduction, it
consist of background of the study, limitation, research question, significance
of the study, and paper organization. Chapter II is literature review, it
consist of underlying theory and previous study. Chapter III deals with the social
background of America society in early of twentieth century. Chapter IV is
structural analysis. It consist of structural analysis of the work, which
include structural elements of To Kill A
Mockingbird such as the character and characterization of the novel,
setting, plot, and other elements of the novel. Chapter V is Sociological
analysis. It consists of the sociological analysis of the major character in To
Kill A Mockingbird.  Chapter VI is conclusion and suggestion.

 

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