Employee’s rate of past job change (Anderson,

Employee’s motivation through job rotationA job design is basically a technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs. The major objective of Job rotation is that employees can be exposed to different experiences and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction and also to cross-train them (business dictionary.com). Job rotation, also known as cross training, is one of the many forms of on-the-job training and a formal effort at executive development. People learn several different skills and perform each task for a specified period of time. Rotating job tasks also helps the worker to understand different steps that go into creating a product or service delivery, how their own effort affects the quality and efficiency of production and customer service, and how each member of the team contributes to the process (Huang, H. J. (1999). Job rotation allows an individual’s so that they can gain experiences in various phases of the business due to which an individual can broaden their perspective. There are various literatures which suggests that rotation is related to promotion in as well and that can be done by three different ways. First, in research on mobility, the rate of future job change has been predictable from the rate of past job change (Anderson, Milkovich, & Tsui, 1981). The work on mobility and executive development implies that the number of job experiences is important that helps us to career attainment ( McCall et al., 1988). Third, work on promotion proposes that broad experience within a company is linked to promotion as a result of employees’ acquisition of organization-specific skills. (Markham et al., 1987). Likewise, if job rotation is related to promotion, it may also be related to salary growth as promotions are usually defined in part as increases in compensation grade level. Researcher have advocated frequent rotation (e.g., daily) among production jobs as a means of reducing boredom and fatigue (Miller, Dhaliwal, & Magas, 1973; Walker & Guest, 1952). Fairly frequent rotation among jobs for a period after the initial hiring of professional employees (rotation every six months for two years, for instance) has been used for orientation and placement of the employee (Wexley & Latham, 1981).Most of the researcher also suggests that rotation is also related to learning and skill acquisition. Experience with rotation may positively influence employee perceptions of skill acquisition for two reasons. First, experience with rotation may enhance familiarity with its outcomes. Thus, if skill is related to rotation, perceptions of skill outcomes will increase as an employee gains experience with rotation. Second, cognitive consistency theories (Festinger, 1957; Heider, 1946) suggest that the greater individuals’ investments in rotation—for example, the higher their rate of rotation has been—the more likely they will be to view rotation positively. Job rotation increases affective career-related outcomes such as employee satisfaction, motivation, involvement, and commitment. Work on executive development suggests additional benefits (Howard & Bray, 1988; McCall et al., 1988), including improved organizational knowledge—concerning business strategy and contacts in other areas, for example—and personal development, such as improved ability to cope with uncertainty and self-insight into strengths and weaknesses. Depending on the jobs experienced, rotation may be a form of enlargement or enrichment for an employee. The job design literature suggests additional benefits, such as opportunities for increased variety, challenge, and achievement (Campion & McClelland, 1991, 1993).  Earlier, job rotation was also linked to some advantages. A recent study conducted by Michael Campion and Michael Stevens of Purdue University and Lisa Cheraskin of Eli Lilly and Company takes a new look at job rotation by relating it to employee career development. Though little prior research has been done, it had been widely assumed that job rotation provides career boosts to those who engage in it. The authors also looked at the work history and background factors that may lead to participation in job rotation programs. The findings were as expected: job rotation was found to have a positive effect on both promotion rates and salary growth. However, there were a few new twists to the “old” story: Job rotation enhanced how employees acquired new skills, with rotation influencing business knowledge more than technical skills. Job tenure also had clear impact on the rate of job rotation; in other words, new employees rotated much more frequently. However, the better your job performance the more likely you were to be rotated, which suggests that the purpose of rotation is not, as popularly assumed, to “get rid of deadwood”. The authors also found that job rotation had a greater effect on salary growth than promotion rate, so that it was more likely that your salary would be upgraded as a function of multiple job rotations than of your level.The rate of job rotations also formed a focal point for the research. The faster the rate of job rotation, the more employees perceived the benefits. Firms that put job rotation programs in place should carefully monitor the rate at which employees are being rotated (e.g., once every two years, or once every four or five years) to determine the rate at which the maximum benefits may be realized. Ironically, executives in the first study thought that the rotation rates at their company were too brief in duration. ( Campion Michael A., Cheraskin Lisa, Stevens Michael J.,1994, p.1518–1542).A study done in two large influential hospitals in southern Taiwan among the nurse suggested that job rotation among nurses could have an effect on their job satisfaction;  job rotation could have an effect on organizational commitment;  job satisfaction could have a positive effect on organizational commitment; (4) role stress among nurses could have a negative effect on their job satisfaction; and role stress could have a negative effect on their organizational commitment  (Ho.et al; 2009). Rotation techniques can be applied in different ways. A study carried out by McDonald in 2002 on companies operating in the American midwest found that the ‘hour’ stated by employees was time slices on which rotation was based. In another study by Henderson in 1992 some companies applied rotation as moving from work requiring low physical effort to work requiring high physical effort. In the selection of the automotive sector as the basic application area, among the determining factors were that in Turkey human resources practices in the automotive sector are more successful, human resource departments have been established at a higher level and development of the human element has been attributed more importance in this sector than other sectors. A study done in Turkish automotive organizations on managers suggest that “job rotation practices have a positive impact on motivation. A decrease in monotony, an increase in knowledge, skills and competence, and development in social relationships in job rotation practices were determined as having a positive effect on motivation ( Aymazaa. K, Economics, 2010, pp. 69-85).ConclusionThere were various studies carried out in the perspective of job rotation and various dimensions.  The studies have tested various factors of job rotation and with perspective of various types of employees. In some studies highest level of manager have been used while in some various stress full job like Nursing have been taken into consideration. Many studies in the past, in different countries have suggested that an employee achieve motivation through the job rotation. However there may be various instances where this technique may not only be a motivational factor. Sometimes too much rotation among employees could not make them as happy and secured. Each person has its own personality so the study may have a different result as well. 

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