According ?ncourag?d numb?r of Muslims who had

According to th?
MHA, ‘communal viol?nc?’ involv?s ‘plann?d and organiz?d acts of viol?nc? by m?mb?rs
of on? community against m?mb?rs of anoth?r community with th? int?nt of cr?ating
or ?xpr?ssing ill-will or hatr?d and l?ading to th? loss of lif? or injuri?s to
p?opl?’.1

Th? p?riod
following Partition saw continu?d outbr?aks of communal viol?nc?, with a ris?
in incid?nts taking plac? in th? 1960s, oft?n involving th? dir?ct planning of
political parti?s and right-wing nationalists, particularly th? RSS. Coupl?d
with social and ?conomic discrimination, this ?ncourag?d numb?r of Muslims who
had initially r?main?d in India to migrat? to Pakistan. Disproportionat? numb?rs
of mor? ?ducat?d and influ?ntial Muslims w?r? amongst thos? who l?ft,
contributing to ?v?n gr?at?r marginalization of Muslims in India, who w?r? incr?asingly
s?gr?gat?d and ?xclud?d, a condition influ?nc?d by th? ins?curity th?y fac?d.

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Viol?nc? against
Muslims spik?d in th? 1980s, with numb?r of high profil? attacks including on B?ngali
Muslims in Assam (1983), Muslims in Moradabad (1980), and Muslims in diff?r?nt
parts of India in th? lat? 1980s, link?d to th? Babri Masjid d?molition mov?m?nt.
Th?s? incid?nts r?fl?ct?d th? instrum?ntalization of communal viol?nc? by parti?s
across th? political sp?ctrum, including th? Indian National Congr?ss (INC) and
th? BJP, th? latt?r of which saw its political influ?nc? ris? in th? 1980s. Th?
BJP’s promotion of an ?xclusionary Hindu nationalism was ?xhibit?d in th? 1980s
and 1990s through its involv?m?nt in a numb?r of high-profil? cas?s of communal
viol?nc?, including th? d?struction of th? Babri Masjid in 1992. This incid?nt,
cont?sting th? pr?s?nc? of a 16th c?ntury mosqu? in a location claim?d by som?
to b? th? birthplac? of Ram, l?d not only to its d?molition by an organiz?d
crowd of Hindu prot?stors but th? subs?qu?nt outbr?ak of communal viol?nc?,
with hundr?ds kill?d in riots across th? country, th? majority Muslims. This
incid?nt was th? culmination of a protract?d campaign by Hindu ?xtr?mists,
support?d by numb?r of high-ranking officials who ?ith?r ?ncourag?d or fail?d
to pr?v?nt th?s? attacks.

                                                        

1 MHA,
‘Revised guidelines of central scheme for assistance to civilian victims/family
of victims of terrorist/communal/LWE violence and cross border firing and
mine/IED blasts on Indian territory’.

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