AbstractIn and region Primary (Grade 1-5) Lower

AbstractIn this paper, I seek to identify which factors
affect the Socio-Economic and gender inequality regarding the education of
girls and boys, as well as of women and men, across two cohorts of married
women in Bangladesh. In particular, I look at the relative importance of an
individual woman’s own educational background and those of her spouse and other
family members in shaping her attitudes toward gender equality in education.InequalityTisTlikeTanTepidemicTforTaTcountryTwhichTdestroysTaTcountry’sTdevelopmentTnotTonlyTforTaTgenerationTbutTalsoTforTaTlongTperiodTofTtime.TAmongTallTkindsTofTinequalitiesTgenderTinequalityTisTtheTextremeToneTasTitTaffectsTallTotherTsectors.TAs
womenThasTcontributionTinTallTsectors.TBringingTwomenTintoTtheTmainstreamTeconomic
activitiesTandTensuringTequalTopportunityTisToneTofTtheTmajorTtargetsTofTMillenniumT
DevelopmentTGoalsTasTpursuedTbyTtheTgovernmentTofTBangladesh.IntroductionItaimTtoTaddTtoTthisTbodyTofTworkTbyTlookingTatTchangesTinTattitudesTregardingT someTaspectsTofTSocioeconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTdueTtoTeducationTinTBangladesh duringTaTperiodTofTrapidTsocialTtransformation.TThisTworkTisTofTparticularTsignificanceTforTaTnumberTofTreasons.TFirstTwhileTinTdevelopedTcountriesTwithThighqualityTdatasetsTthereThaveTbeenTmanyTanalysesTofTgenderTnormsTandTattitudes,TinTdevelopingTcountriesqualityTdataTthereThaveTbeenTrelativelyTfewTstudiesTonTgenderTnorms,TandTthoseTthatT haveTbeenTconductedThaveTbeenTrestrictedTtoTsmallTsamplesTandTtoTtopicsTsuchTasT attitmaking,TsexTpreferencesTforTchildren,TandTviolenceTagainstTwomen.TInTaddition,TmostTofTtheTresearchTconductedTinTdevelopingTcountriesThasTfocusedTonTusingTattitudesTasexplanatoryTvariablesTforTaTnumberTofToutcomes,TratherTthanTasToutcomeTvariablesTinT theirTownTright.PreviousTresearchTonTeducationTandTgenderTnormsThasTprimarilyTfocusedonTtheTquestionTofTwhetherTeducationTisTaTliberalizingTinfluenceTorTaTconstraintTonT attitudesTregardingTgenderTequality.TTheTresultsTofTtheseTstudiesTare,TtoTsayTtheTleast,TequivocalT(KaneT1995).TITsituateTmyTanalysisTonTchangingTattitudesTregardingTgirl’sT educationTwithinTtheToverallTcontextTofTeducationalTexpansionTinTBangladesh,TandTtheTdefinitionsTofTsexTrolesTandTexpectationsTinTtheTculture.TBecauseTITprovideTquantitativeevidenceTonTtheTdeterminantsTofTgenderTeducationTnormsTinTBangladesh,TmyTworkTalsocomplementsTtheTrelatedTearlierTworkTbyTSchulerTandTcolleagues,TwhichTinvolvedTin depthTinterviewsTandTgroupTdiscussionsT(see,Te.g.,TSchulerTetTal.T2006T(andTtheTreferen-cesTtherein)).Background BangladeshTprovidesTanTinterestingTcontextTforTanTanalysisTofTtheTchangesTinTgenderT normsTregardingTeducation.TTheTgrowthTinTaccessTtoTeducation,TandTespeciallyTinTaccestoTsecondaryTeducationTforTgirls,TmayTbeTBangladesh’sTmostTdramaticTachievementTinT theTlastTtwoTdecades.TInTtheTareaTofTfemaleTsecondaryTeducation,TBangladeshTstandsT outTasTaTshiningTsuccessTstoryTamongTlowincomeTcountries,TBangladesh’sTprogressTisT especiallyTcommendableTbecauseTtheTgrowthTinTfemaleTeducationTtookTplaceTwithinTaT democraticTregime,TandTstartedTfromTaTveryTlowTbase. Figure
1:
Enrollment rates in EducationTable: 1 Gross enrollment
rates of boys and girls by level and region

Primary
(Grade 1-5)

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Lower Sec.
(Grade 6-8)

Secondary
(Grade 9-10)

Higher Secondary (11-12)

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Barisal

93.9

93.6

55.4

58.9

45.8

58.1

44.7

35

Chittagong

83.5

84.5

48.1

58.2

37.2

49.9

34.6

32.8

Dhaka

86.1

84.5

52.7

58.4

62.2

66.6

32.3

33.3

Khulna

96.1

99.5

60.7

66.9

58.3

71.5

39.3

36.2

Rajshahi

85.5

91.5

53.5

70.3

50.3

57.5

38.2

33.4

Sylhet

83.2

85.7

57.1

36.3

39.7

58

29.1

28.5

 Source: BANBEIS (Government of
Bangladesh), 2015/016The growth in education and the
accompanying social changes have probably been the most important recent
developments in Bangladesh, but there are others as well. Starting from a very
low base of 9%, female labor force participation picked up to over 22% during
the years 1993?2003. While, as indicated, the female labor participation has
increased, the female-male gapTinTlaborTforceTparticipationT(LFP)ThasTalsoTincreasedTinTrelativeTtermsToverTtheT pastTfewTdecades: InT1990TtheTLFPTwasT61.7%TforTfemalesTandT88.4TforTmales,TbutTbyT2011TitThadT decreasedTtoT57.2%TforTfemalesTandT84.3%TforTmalesT(WDIT2013).TEvocativeTimagesTofThundredsTofTyoungTgirlsTwalkingTeveryTmorningTtoTtheTgarmentTfactoriesThaveTbeenetchedTintoTtheTpopularTimaginationTasTaTmetaphorTforTprogress.TInfantTmortalityThasT declinedTfasterTinTBangladeshTthanTinTanyTotherTcountryTinTSouthTAsia.TTheTtotalT fertilityTrateTtodayTisTlessTthanTone-third of the rate
four decades ago, having declined from about 6.9 in 1971 to about 2.2 in 2011
(WDI 2013). Meanwhile,TtheTmicrocreditTrevolutionTsweepingTtheTcountrysideThasTgivenTwomenT visibilityTandTgreaterTstatus.TBetterTwaterTandTsanitationTfacilitiesThaveTreducedTtheT drudgeryTexperiencedTbyTmothers,TwhoTnowThaveTtimeTforTotherTactivities.. AnTinformationTandTcommunicationTboomThasTresultedTfromTtheTwidespreadTavailabilityofTradios,Ttelevisions,TandTmobileTphones.TTheTexpansionTofTruralTroadsTandTofTelectrificationThaveTenabledTmanyTpeopleTtoTfindTworkTbeyondTtraditionalTlow–productivity
cottage industries. The availability of more secure modes of transport has also
given people greater mobility, allowing more women to move out of their
villages to take jobs in the city (Hossain and Bose 2004; World Bank 2008).WhileTtheTprogressTdescribedTaboveTisTreal,TseriousTproblemsTremainTinTBangladesh,andnewTonesTareTsurfacing.TThus,TwhileTwomen’sTstatusThasTimprovedTdramaticallyTinTthe lastTfewTdecades,TgenderTinequalitiesTpersistTinTmanyTareas,TsuchTasTinTaccess to markets,
political forums, and high-tech services. Moreover, there are sharp disparities
based on an individual’s place of residence, wealth quintile, and ethnicity.
The practice of dowry payments is on the rise, and is one of the reasons why
the average girl is married off by the time she is 15 years old.ITdescribedTaboveTtheTextentTtoTwhichTeducationThasTexpandedTinTBangladesh.TITalsoTnotedTthatTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsThaveTchangedTtheTconservativeTmarriageTmarket,TasTincreasingTnumbersTofTwomenTare,TinTcontrastTtoTtheirTmothers’generation,TmarryingTmenTlessTeducatedTthanTthem.TClearly,TtheTdemandTforTeducationTisTnotTonlycontingentTonTculturalTreasons,TbutThasTsomeTimportantTstructuralTcorrelates.TForTtheT pastTtwoTdecades,TBangladeshThasTpursuedTaTpolicyTofTenhancingTgirl’sTeducationT throughTinnovativeTincentiveTschemesTthatTprovideTstipendsTtoTgirlsTwhoTremain enrolledTinTsecondaryTschool.TOverTtheTpastTdecade,TNGOsThaveTalsoTcontributedT substantiallyTtoTtheTexpansionTofTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsTandTofTlaborT marketTopportunitiesTforTwomenT(WorldTBankT2008:TChT1).However,TrecentTqualitativeTworkThasTshownTthatTperceptionsTamongTSouthTAsiansTofTgirl’sTeducationTandTgenderTnormsTinTgeneralTareTchangingTrapidly.TToday,TlocalT populationsTtakeTgreatTprideTinTtheTexpansionTofTgirl’sTeducationTinTtheirTtowns,TandT inTtheTimpactTthisTexpansionThasTonTtheTcommunity,TtheTwell -being of children,
and the empowerment of women (World Bank 2008: Ch 3). How and why did this
change in perceptions of education come about? At the macro level, I argue that
a supply- sideTpushTforTeducationTtappedTtheTlatentTdemandTforTeducationTamongTfamiliesTofT girls,TwhichTseemsTtoThaveTexistedTalongsideTconservativeTnormsTandTvalues.TOnceTthe impactTofTeducationTonTgirlsTandTcommunitiesTbecameTapparent,TthisTfueledTfurtherT demand.TWomen’sTaccessTtoTnewTjobTopportunitiesTinTtheTgarmentTsectorTandTwithT NGOsTshowedTfamiliesTthatTgirlsTcanThaveTanTeconomicTworthTasTwell.TGloballyTofT course,ThigherTreturnsTtoTeducationTforTwomenThaveTbeenTshownTinTaTnumberTof studies, including Psacharopoulos’
(1994) cross-country review, a study by Schultz (1994), and TandTresearchTfromTsuchTdiverseTsettingsTasTaiwanT(GindlingTetTal.T1995),TtheTCzechTRepublicTandTSlovakiaT(ChaseT1997),TandTIndiaT(MalathyTandTDuraisamyT1993;Duraisamy
2000). 3. Data
and methods This study was conducted based on the data on various
secondary sources like, Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES), Labour
Force Survey (LFS) and other reports conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of
Statistics (BBS), Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS), Bangladesh
Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) etc. Using these
data, some projections were made by using the simple mathematical equation:  Pt=Po (1+ rt) Where, Pt = Value of
the present year Po= Value of the previous year t = Time interval between previous and present years r = Growth rateDifferentTstatisticalTreports,TrelevantTresearchTpapers,TbooksTandTmanyTnationalTandT internationalTjournalsThaveTalsoTbeenTreviewedTforTthisTstudy.TOneTofTtheTreasonsTwhythereTisTrelativelyTlittleTempiricalTliteratureTonTchangingTnormsTinTSouthTAsiaTisTthatT thereTareTfewTdatasetsTthatTallowTforTsuchTanalyses.TIndividualTquestionsTinTtheT DemographicTandTHealthTSurveysTonTattitudesTtowardTviolence,Tfertility,TandTindividual diseasesThaveTallowedTforTsomeTanalysisTofTattitudesTinTtheseTareas,TbutTveryTfewT questionsTprovideTtheTinformationTneededTforTanTanalysisTofTattitudesTtowardTgenderT inequality.TToTconductTmyTanalysis,TweTwereTableTtoTuseTtheTWorldTBankTSurveyTonGenderTNormsTinTBangladeshT(WBGNS)T2006,TaTuniqueTdatasetTwhichThasTaTnumberTofTquestionsTonTattitudesTtowardTgenderTequalityTinTeducation. My aim is to
understand whether two cohorts of women display differences in terms of gender
norms and/or theTcorrelatesTofTtheseTnorms,TandTwhetherTtheseTnormsTdifferTwithTregardTtoTtheT educationTofTgirlsTversusTboys,TandTofTwivesTversusThusbands,Trespectively. The WBGNS 2006 is the first comprehensive, nationally
representative household survey of gender norms and practices in Bangladesh. It
is based on a sample of adults that include married women in the age groups
15?25 and 45?59, married male heads of households in the age group 25?50, and
500 community leaders (such as Union Parishad (UP) members, Imams/Moulvis
(religious leaders), primary school teachers, and Madrasah teachers). The
samples were drawn in two stages. In the first stage, 91 clusters 5 were
selected as a subsample of the 361 clusters included in the Bangladesh.   5 A
cluster is a census-defined village that corresponds roughly to a mouza village
in rural areas and a census block (part of a mohollah) in an urban area.     ResultsHereThaveTtwoTestimationTsamples:TolderTwomenT(1,431TinitialTobservations)TandT youngerTwomenT(1,543TinitialTobservations).TAsTexplanatoryTvariablesTwereTfoundTtoTbemissingTforTsomeTobservations,TtheTsamplesTusedTinTtheTfinalTanalysesTwereTslightlyT smaller.TinTanalyzingTtheTdifferenceTinTpatternsTbetweenTtheTtwoTcohortsTofTwomenT intheTsample,TITcaptureTintergenerationalTchanges.TOfTcourse,TitTisTentirelyTpossibleTthattheTdifferenceTisTsimplyTaTfunctionTofTageTandTlife–cycle,
and not of cohort. I believe, however, that after controlling for a number of
demographic characteristics, we are able to capture most of the effects of
changes over time.Bringing women into the mainstream
economic activities and ensuring equal opportunity isToneTofTtheTmajorTtargetsTofTMillenniumTDevelopmentTGoalsT(MDGs)TasTpursuedTbytheTgovernmentTofTBangladesh.THowever,TwomenTinTBangladeshTareTdominatedTbyTaTmatrilinealTandTpatriarchalTkinshipTsystem,TwhichTenforcesTtheTsocialTandTeconomicT dependenceTofTwomenTonTmenTandTprescribesTtheTrelativeTlowerTstatusTofTwomen.T Although,TthereThasTbeenTsteadyTprogressTinTreducingTgenderTinequalityTinTdifferentT sectorsTlikeTeducationTemploymentTetc.TbutTthereTexistsTaThugeTinequalityTinTtheseT
sectorsTofTBangladeshTandTparticipationTofTwomenTisTveryTlowTcomparedTtoTtheirTmalecounterpart. Gender inequality has
appeared as the major stumbling barrier in achieving the development targets.Changes Socio-Economic Gender Inequality in EducationNumerousTaffirmativeTactionsTwereTalsoTintroducedTtoTenhanceTtheTfemaleTliteracy.T However,TthereTremainsTaTconsiderableTgapTinTenrollment.TLiteracyTasTwellTasTtheT significantlyThigherTproportionTofTfemaleTdropoutTfromTtheTsystemTisTstillTaTmajorT concern.TTheTliteracyTofTmaleTchildrenTwasT49.5TpercentTinT2000TatTtheTnationalTlevel,whichThasTincreasedTtoT61.12TpercentTinT2010TwithTanTannualTaverageTincreasingTrateTofT1.16Tpercent.TContinuationTofTthisTrateTindicatesTthatTtheTliteracyTrateTofTtheTmaleTchildrenTmyTincreaseTtoT65.77TpercentTinTtheTnationalTlevelTbyT2014TwhichTisT34.23T percentTlowerTthanTtheTNationalTEducationTPolicyT(NEP,T2010)TtargetTofT100Tpercent.TWhereas,TtheTliteracyTrateTofTfemaleTchildrenTinTtheTnationalTlevelTwasT40.1TpercentT  inT2000,TwhichThasTincreasedTtoT54.8TpercentTinT2010TwithTanTannualTaverageT increasingTrateTofT1.47Tpercent.TUnderTtheTbusinessTasTusualTscenario,TtheTliteracyTrateofTtheTfemaleTmightTbeT60.68TpercentTatTtheTnationalTlevelTinT2014,TwhichTisT39.32TpercentTlowerTthanTtheTNationalTEducationTPolicyT(NEP,T2010)TtargetTofT100Tpercent. There are also
high rural-urban variations in case of the literacy rate by sex where the rural
women are far behind than their urban counterparts and male counterparts as
well. GenderTdisparityTisTsignificantlyThighTinThigherTeducationT(universityTlevel).TInT2001,TamongTtheTtotalTstudentsTinTtheTpublicTuniversities,TonlyT24.3TpercentTwereTfemaleTstudentsTwhereasTthemaleTenrollmentTcomprisesTalmostTthreeTtimesThigherT(75.7Tpercent)T thanTthatTofTtheTfemale.TItTisTalsoTobservedTthatToverTtheTyears,TbothTmale and female
enrollment in the university level is increasing with a slower rate. In the
recent time, the rate at which the female enrollment in the primary level is
increasing, the enrollment in higher education is not increasing at the same
pace.ThereTexistsTanTimmenseTinequalityTbetweenTtheTmaleTandTfemaleTinTBangladeshTasT farTasTemploymentTstatusTisTconcerned.THowever,TalthoughTthereTareTsomeTprogressesT inTtheTrecentTyearsTbutTitTisTstillTlowTthanTthatTofTexpected. In 1993-94,
employed male population was 57.5 percent and it was 10.6 percent for female at
the national level. The percentage of employed population for both male and
female has decreased to 44.2 percent and 9.7 percent respectively in 1999-2000.
Again, the percentage of employed male and female has increased to 68.3 percent
and 22.9 percent in 2007 from 67.5 percent and 15.2 percent in 2004
respectively at the national level. Furthermore, it is also observed that the
increasing rate in the percentage of employed population has occurred with a
higher rate for female than that of male. Although there is little progress in
the percentage of economically active population, the number of population who
are unemployed are still increasing. Unemployed population has increased from
1.3 million in 1995-96 to 2.7 million in 2009 with an average of 0.13 million
per year. In case of male, it has increased with an annual average of 0.06
million and for female it was 0.05 million at the same period (1995-96 to
2009).GlobalTresearchThasTprovidedTevidenceTonTtheTcriticalTlinkageTofTeducationalTstatusTanditTisTbeingToneTofTtheTkeyTfactorsTthatTdetersTwomenTfromTequalTparticipationTinT socioTeconomicTactivitiesTwithTmenTandTstrengthensTinequalityTbetweenTsexes.TInTBangladesh,TwomenTareTstillTrestrictedTwithinTtheirThomeTfromTtheTbirthTwithTtheT perceptionthatTtheyTwillTgoTawayTtoTotherThomeTafterTtheirTmarriage.THence,TtheyTdoTnotTneedTeducation.TTraditionally,TfemaleTeducationThasTbeenTaccordedTaTlowTpriorityT inTBangladeshTdueTtoTpoverty,TsocialTdirectivesTforTfemaleTseclusionTandTtheTlowTvaleofTgirls.THowever,TtheTsituationTisTchangingTinTrecentTtime.TSinceTtheTworldTDeclarationTforTAllT(1990),TtheTgovernmentTintroducedTvariousTmeasuresTtoTintensifyTbasicTeducationTforTallTwithTparticularTfocusTonTfemaleTeducation.TNumerousTaffirmativeTactionsT wereTalsoTintroducedTtoTenhanceTfemaleTliteracy.THowever,TthereTremainsTaT considerableTgapTinTenrollmentTliteracyTasTwellTasTtheTsignificantlyThigherTproportionT ofTfemaleT dropoutTfromTtheTsystemTisTstillTaTmajorTconcern.TheTpercentageTofTliterateTchildrenTalsoTvariesTaccordingTtoTtheTsex.TTheTliteracyTofTmaleT childrenTwasT49.5TpercentTinT2000TatTnationalTlevelTwhichThasTincreasedTtoT61.12TpercentT inT2010TwithTanTannualTaverageTincreasingTrateTofT1.16Tpercent.TContinuationTofTthisTrateT indicatesTthatTtheTliteracyTrateTofTmaleTchildrenTmightTbeTincreasedTtoT65.77TpercentTatT nationalTlevelTbyT2014,TwhichTisT34.23TpercentTlowerTthanTtheTNationalTEducationTPolicyT (NEP,T2010)TtargetTofT100Tpercent.TWhereas,TliteracyTrateTofTfemaleTchildrenTatTnationalT levelTwasT40.1TpercentTinT2000TwhichThasTincreasedTtoT54.8TpercentTinT2010 with an annual
average increasing rate of 1.47 percent. Under the business as usual scenario,
literacy rate of female might be 60.68 percent at national level in 2014, which
is 39.32 percent lower than the National Education Policy (NEP, 2010) target of
100 percent. There are also high rural-urban variations in case of literacy
rate by sex. This percentage of literacy was 45.5 percent and 64.9 percent in
rural and urban area for male children in 2000 which has increased to 56.67 percent
and 73.1 percent in 2010 with an annual average increasing rate of 1.1 percent
and 0.82 percent respectively. On the other hand, in 2000 literacy rate of
female was 36.1 percent and 55.3 percent for rural and urban areas which has
increased to 50.21 percent and 67.67 percent in 2010 with an annual average
increase rate of 1.41 percent and 1.24 percent respectively (Table 2). The
annual average rate of increase in the percentage of female literacy at
national, rural and urban level is comparatively higher than that of male. This
might be due to the various education enhancing activities by governments and
various NGOs. Table 2: Current situation and
future projection of literacy rate (

x

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